I. Anthropology

 Definition of anthropology, its historical development and recent trends

II. Social Anthropology

 Definition of culture, its characteristics and functions

 Relationship of anthropology with other social sciences

 Sub fields of anthropology:

a) Biological Anthropology,

b) Archaeology,

c) Linguistic Anthropology

d) Socio-Cultural Anthropology

 Institution of Family and Marriage

(Definitions, types, structures, functions, family organization)

 Kinship and Social Organization

(Definitions, types, functions, kinship terminology etc)

 Economic Organization:

(Definitions, evolution, substantivism versus formalism, reciprocity, production, consumption, distribution, barter and primitive economic systems)

 Political Organization:

(Definitions, evolution of political system, characteristics of (band, tribal, chiefdom and state societies), theories of the origin of state societies (internal conflict theories, external conflict theories, population and irrigation theories, institutionalization of leadership and the emergence of state, system theories), origin of civilization, the politics of identity, ethnicity and ethnic relations, nationalism, modernism, post-modernism etc.

 Religion:

(Definitions, evolution of primitive religions, functions of religion, comparison of devine religions and other world religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism etc)

 Contemporary Human Problems:

Poverty, social inequality, political instability, population problems, ethnic violence and terrorism etc.

III. Urban Anthropology

Rural-urban migration, expansion of cities, major environmental issues, sanitation problems, urbanization and development, establishment of slums and squatter settlements, refugees, yankees, betties, gypsies, wars and conflict, conversion of power from feudal to industrialists, institutionalization, education system, and change in the mode of production (agriculture to capitalists), poverty (theories and remedies), management of city life (psychological, cultural, economic, political, religious, physical, environmental, ecological, demographical, lingual etc.), Karl Marx and conflict theory, problems created by the mechanization and automation.

IV. Socio-Cultural Change

Definitions, difference between social and cultural change, various dimension of cultural change, barriers to cultural change including (culture, psychological and political), internal dynamics for change, external dynamics for change, population increase and change,
diffusion of innovations, socio-religious barriers in accepting the innovations and new ideas, media and cultural change, dynamics of change in Pakistan (Trends and prospects)

V. Ethnicity and Race

Theories related to ethnicity and race, ethnicity and racism, nations and nationality, ethnic conflict, degree of social variation, rank societies, caste and class societies and social stratification etc.

VI. Anthropological Theories

 Contributors:

(Edward Burnett Taylor, Lewis Henry Morgan, James Frazer, Karl Marx, Edmund Leach, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Alfred L. Krobber, Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown, Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski, Clifford Geertz, Talal Asad, Akbar S. Ahamd, Ibn Khaldun, Shah Walliullah)

 Classical Theories:

(Degenerations, Evolutionism, Neo-Evolutionism, Diffusions)

 Modern Theories:

(Functionalism, Structural-functionalism, Class struggle, Structuralism, Historical Particularism, Feminism, Culture and personality)

 Current Trends in Anthropological Thoughts:

(Post Modernism, Romanticism, Poetics and Politics of Ethnography)

VII. Anthropological Research Methods

 Meaning, definition, types and aims of anthropological research

 Qualitative and Quantitative research

 Purpose of research, research question, variables, hypothesis, research
objective(s), research design, sampling, field data collection, tools of data
collection (questionnaire, interview, participant observation), data classification, data analysis, and reporting.


S.No. Title Author
1. Anthropology William A Haviland
2. Cultural Anthropology Onrad Philip Kottak
3. Diffusion of Innovation Evert M. Roger
4. Socio Cultural Dynamics and impact of
Technological Change
G. M. Foster
5. Pakistani Society Akber S. Ahmed
6. Economic Anthropology Sutti Ortiz
7. Political Anthropology: An introduction Ted. C. Lawellen
8. Pukhtun economy and society Akber S. Ahmed
9. Principles of Anthropology Eliot Dismore Chapple and
Carleton Stevens Coon
10. Anthropology and Modern life Franz Boas
11. Anthropology and Contemporary Human
John H. Bodley
12. Sindh and the Races that inhabit the Valley of
the Indus
Richard Burton
13. The People of Pakistan Yu. V. Gankorvsky
14. Anthropology and Development Jean-Pierre Olivier de
15. An Introduction to Theory in Anthropology Robert Layton
16. Anthropological Theory John R. McGee and Richard
L. Warms
17. Anthropology in Pakistan Stephen Pastner and Louis
18. Anthropology (13th edition) Carol R. Ember, Melvin R
Ember and Pet N Peregrine
19. Other Cultures John Beattie
20. A Hand Book of Social Science Research Bevelry R. Dixon, Gary D
Bouma and G.B.J. Atiinson
21. Frontier Perspectives: Essays in Comparative
Clarlies Lindholm
22. Generosity and Jealousy: The Swat Pukhtun of
Northern Pakistan
Clarlies Lindholm
23. Friend by Day and Enemy by Night: Organized
Vengeance in a Kohistani Community
Lincoin Keiser
24. A Punjabi Village in Pakistan Zekiye Eglar
25. The social organization of the Marri Baluch Robert Niel Pehrson
26. Introducing Anthropology Park, MA 2007
27. Peoples and Cultures of Asia Scupin, R 2005
28. Outlines and Highlights for Anthropology Scupin, R and Decorse, CR
29. Economic Anthropology Stuart plattner
30. Economies and Culture Richard Wilk
31. Introduction to Anthropology of Religion Brian Moris