I. Introduction

Basic concepts used in understanding crime, criminality and criminal behaviour.

II. Understanding Criminology

Definition, meaning and scope of criminology; Criminology and criminal law; Crime as
social problem; Deviance, Sin Vice, Evil, Norms, Values; Security (Physical, Social,

III. Crime and Criminals

Occasional criminals, Habitual criminals, Professional criminals, White-collar crime,
Organized crime, corporate crimes.

IV. Crime and Criminality: Theoretical Perspectives

Early explanation of criminal behavior

 Biological Theories; Psychological Theories; Sociological Theories.

 Social Disorganization theory

 Strain theory

 Social Control theory

 Learning theory

 Labeling Theory

 Islamic perspective on deviance and crime.

Section-II (25 Marks)

V. Juvenile Delinquency

Meaning, definitions (Behavioral Vs Legal), Juvenile delinquent Vs status offender,
Official statistics of juvenile delinquency

VI. Juvenile Justice System

 Role of police

 Juvenile court process:

 pretrial, trial and sentencing

 Role of prosecutor, defense counsel, juvenile judge, juvenile probation officer

 Juvenile correctional institutions; probation and non-punitive alternatives

VII. The Criminal Justice System:

 Police and its role

 Trial and Conviction of Offenders

 Agencies: formal and informal

 Criminal courts: procedures and problems

 Role of prosecutors

 Prisons, Probation and Parole

VIII. Punitive and Reformative Treatment of Criminals

Corporal punishment, Imprisonment, Rehabilitation of criminals.

Section-III (25 Marks)

IX. Criminal Investigation

Principles of criminal investigation, Manual of preliminary investigation, Intelligence
operations, Data base investigation, Electronic investigation, Forensic Investigation

X. Techniques of Investigations

Gathering information from persons, Interviewing and interrogation techniques,
Criminal investigation analysis,

XI. Legal and Ethical Guidelines for Investigators

Stop and frisk operations, Arrest procedures, Search and seizure.

XII. International Policing and Criminal Justice

Monitoring Organizations
Section-IV (25 Marks)

XIII. Modern Concepts in Contemporary Criminology

 Terrorism, Radicalism and War on Terror

 Media’s representation of Crime and the Criminal Justice System

 Modern Law Enforcement and Crime Prevention

 Intelligence-led Policing

 Community Policing

 Private Public Partnership

 Gender and Crime in Urban and Rural Pakistan

 Crime and Urbanization, Organized Crime and White-Collar Crime

 Human Rights Abuses and Protection, especially of Children; Women and
Minorities; The role of civil society and NGOs

 Money-laundering

 Cyber Crime

 Role of NAB, FIA, ANF


S.No. Title Author
1. New Perspectives in Criminology Conklin, J.E
2. Criminal Interrogation and Confessions. Fred, E.I., John, E.R.,
Joseph, P.B. and
Brian, C.J.
3. Theoretical Criminology George B. Vold,
Thomas J. Bernard,
Jeffrey B. Snipes
4. Modern Criminology: Crime, Criminal Behavior and its
Hagan, J.
5. Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach James, B.
6. Security Studies: An Introduction Paul, D.W.
7. Crime, Justice and Society: An Introduction to
Ronald, J.B., Marvin,
D.F. and Patricia, S.
8. Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law Seigel, L.J.
9. Crime Prevention: Theory and Practice Stephen, S.
Suggested Websites
10. International Society of Criminology (ICS):
11. American Society of Criminology (ASC):
12. British Society of Criminology (BSC):
13. European Society of Criminology (ESC):
14. International Police Executive Symposium (IPES);
15. Asian Criminological Society (ACS):
16. Asian Association of Police Studies (AAPS):
17. Campbell Library:
18. UNAFEI (Japan):
19. Pakistan Society of Criminology (PSC):
20. South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology (SASCV):