Physical Geography

I. Factors controlling land form development

endogenic and exogenic forces; origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; physical conditions of the earth’s interior; geosynclines; continental drift; isostasy; sea-floor spreading; plate tectonics; mountain building; volcanicity; earthquakes; concepts of geomorphic cycles; landforms associated with fluvial, arid, glacial, coastal and Karst cycle; groundwater.

II. Elements and Factors of climate

structure and composition of atmosphere, insolation, temperature, Pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation: planetary,monsoon and local winds; Air masses and Fronts; Hydrological cycle; Types of condensation and precipitation; Factors of global distribution of precipitation.

III. Origin of oceans and seas

Characteristic features of the ocean basins, temperature, salinity distribution cause and effects, Ocean floor deposits, their characteristics and classification, Ocean circulation, Waves, currents and tides, their nature, causes and effects.

IV. Factors of climate and Environmental change.

Transformation of nature by man; environmental degradation and conservation; Nature and Types of pollution. Problems caused by pollution, Global Warming, Global Environment Patterns, Environmental Hazards and Risk Management.

Part –II (Marks 50)

Human Geography

V. Origin and Diffusion of Culture

Geographic patterns of culture, Classification of Languages, World Distribution of Languages, Indo-European Languages, Origins of
Religions, Diffusion of Religions, Global Distribution, Regional conflicts, Ethnicities and Nationalities, Ethnic Conflicts, Ethnic Diversity in the World, Factors of Ethnic Cleansing, Ethnic Cleansing in the World, Development Indicators, Economic Indicators, Social Indicators, Health Indicators, Development through Trade, Impacts of development Indicators.

VI. Factors effecting Agriculture

Subsistence Agriculture and population growth, Commercial Agriculture and Market Forces, Sustainable Agriculture, Types and Distribution of Agriculture, Factors of Industrial locations, The Industrial Revolution,
Industrial Theories, Distribution of Industries and Industrial Estates, Renewable Resources, Recycling Resources, Sustainable resources.

VII. Factors of Population Growth

Components of Change, Population Structure, The Demographic Transition, World distribution of Population, Over and under Population threats and their consequences, Models of Internal Structure of Cities, World Urban
Patterns, Settlement Theories, Patterns and Problems within urban areas.

VIII. Politics, Geography and Political Geography

State as a Politico-Territorial Phenomenon, State, Nation and the Nation-State, World Politics and International Relations, Geopolitics of uneven Development and Globalization of Capital, Geography of Tourism and Recreation, The demand for tourism and recreation, The supply for tourism and recreation,

The impact of tourism and recreation:

(Socioeconomic impacts, Physical-environmental impacts), Global patterns in health and diseases, Models in medical geography, Recent issues and developments.


S.No. Title Author
1. Discovering Physical Geography 2nd ed.
Hoboken:John Wiley &Sons,Inc.
Alan F. Arbogast (2011).
2. Introducing Physical Geography. Hobken: John
Wiley & Sons
Alan Strahler, (2011).
3. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate (7th ed.).
London: Clays St. Davis.
Barry, R. (1998).
4. Meknight’s Physical Geography A Landscape
application 10th ed PHI Learning, New Delhi.
Darrel Hess (2012).
5. Text Book of Population Geography, Randam Publications, New Delhi. Dr. Martin Ardagh (2013).
6. Atmosphere, Climate and Change. New York:
Scientific American Library
Graedel, T. (1995).
7. An Introduction to Oceanography. Johnson H. (1996).
8. Economic Geography, Randam Publications,
New Delhi.
Philip Emeral (2013).
9. Essentials of Physical Geography 8thed
Robert E. Gabler& James F.
Petersen (2007)
10. Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical
Geography 7th ed. New Jersey:Pearson Prentice
Robert W. Christopherson
11. Tourism Geography: Randam Publications, New
Shweta Singh (2013).
12. Elements of physical geography. New York.
John Wiley.
Strahler, A. N. (1998).
13. Natural Disaster Management: New
technologies and opportunities, The Icfai Uni.
Press, Agartala.
Subir Ghosh (2012).
14. Economic Geography 3rd ed. PHI Learning, New
Truman A. Hartshorn (2010).
15. Environmental Geography: Science Landuse William M. Marsh (2005).