I. Introduction to Physical Geology
Introduction and scope of geology, its importance and relationship with other sciences; Earth as a member of the solar system: its origin, age, composition and internal structure; Introduction to rocks and minerals; Weathering and erosion; Isostasy; Geological Time Scale.
II. Stratigraphy and Paleontology
Principles of stratigraphy; Laws of superposition and faunal succession; Geological time scale with divisions; Classification and nomenclature of stratigraphic units: lithostragraphic units, biostratigraphic units and chronostratgraphic units.
Introduction to fossils and their significance; Modes of fossilization; Study of morphology, range and broad classification of major invertebrate phyla; Introduction to micro fossils; Introduction to Paleobotany; Introduction and classification of major vertebrates; Introduction to micropaleontology
Classification of minerals; Study of internal structure; Polymorphism and
isomorphism; Paragenesis; Physical and optical properties of the common silicate and non-silicate mineral groups; Introduction to crystallography: elements of symmetry, study; normal classes of crystallographic systems.
IV. Structural Geology and Tectonics
Stress-strain concepts; factors controlling the mechanical behavior of materials; Folds; Faults; Joints; Foliation: terminology, classification and relationship with bedding; Lineation; Unconformity.
Plate tectonics theory; Geological evidences for continental drift; Sea-floor
spreading; Oceanic ridges; Continental rifts; Intra-oceanic islands; Hot spot and Mantle plumes; Wilson Cycle; Tectonic framework of Pakistan.
V. Petrology and Petrography
Introduction, classification and description of sedimentary rocks; origin;
transportation and deposition of sediments; Texture of sedimentary rocks;
Sedimentary structures, their classification, morphology and significance;
Composition, origin, differentiation and evolution of magma; Classification of igneous rocks; Mode of occurrences and types of extrusive rocks; Texture and structure of igneous rocks; Introduction to metamorphism; Types of metamorphism; Grades, zones and facies of metamorphism; Metamorphic diffusion and differentiation; Metamorphism in relation to Plate Tectonics; Differentiation between metamorphism and metasomatism.
Introduction to Polarizing Microscope; Optical properties of opaque and non-opaque minerals in plane polarized light and under crossed Nicole including metallic under reflected light; Description of optical properties of common rock forming minerals.
Part- II (50-marks)
I. Introduction to Geophysics
Definition and relation of geophysics with other sciences; Classification and brief description of various branches of geophysics such as seismology, geomagnetism, geoelectricity, tectonophysics, gravimetry, geo-thermy and geodesy; Introduction to various geophysical techniques for exploration of mineral deposits, oil and gas, subsurface water and engineering works.
II. Sequence Stratigraphy
Introduction: history, concept and significance of sequence stratigraphy; Data sources: seismic reflections, outcrops, well logs, core and seismic facies; Sea level changes: their causes and effects, accommodation, eustatic and relative sea curve; Hierarchy of sequence stratigraphic elements; Types of sequences and systems tracts.
III. Petroleum Geology
The nature and classification of petroleum hydrocarbons, their origin, migration and accumulation; Source sediments, reservoir rocks and trapping mechanism for oil and gas; Prospecting and exploration of oil and gas; Reservoir: characteristics, drive mechanism, energy and pressure maintenance; Secondary and enhanced recovery;
Introduction to Sedimentary Basins of Pakistan.
IV. Engineering and Environmental Geology
Rock and soil mechanics and its application in civil engineering; Rock mass
characteristics; Geotechnical studies of rocks and soils; Geological factors and strength of rocks; Study of geological factors in relation to the construction of buildings’ foundations, roads, highways, tunnels, dams and bridges; Application of geophysical methods for site investigation; Construction materials; Mass movement: their causes and prevention.
Introduction to environmental geology; Management of natural resources; Global climatic changes; Environmental controls for erosion, desertification and coastal degradation; Geological hazards such as floods, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, glaciers and shoreline processes; Remedial measures; Clean sources of energy; Industrial pollution, solid and liquid waste disposal, Introduction to environmental impact assessment and initial environmental examination.
V. Mineral and Energy Resources
Introduction of geological exploration/prospecting. Brief description of hydrocarbons, coal, gemstones, copper, lead, zinc, iron, gold, chromite, manganese, salt, gypsum, bauxite, sulphur, barite, fluorite, clays, phosphorite, building and dimension stones; Industrial rocks and minerals; Radioactive minerals and rocks; Special reference to economic mineral deposits in Pakistan.
Origin, occurrence, and depositional environments of coal; Coal constitution and its kinds; Coal rank, grade and calorific value; Coal deposits of Pakistan with reference to Thar Coal; Geothermal energy resources of Pakistan.
VI. Economic and Applied Geology
Metallic and Non-metallic mineral resources of Pakistan; Mineral-based industries.
Overview of Recodec Copper; Radioactive minerals and their occurrences in
Pakistan; Gemstones of Pakistan.
Geology of Reservoirs, dams, highways and tunnels; Major natural hazards and their impacts on the environment with special reference to Pakistan.
|1.||Physical Geology||Charles Plummer, |
|2.||Physical Geology||Charles (Carlos) |
|3.||Principles of Physical Geology||Holmes, A|
|4.||Principles of Paleontology||Raup, D.M. & Stanley, |
|5.||Vertebrate Paleontology||Romer, A.S|
|6.||Invertebrate Paleontology and |
|7.||Stratigraphy of Pakistan||Shah, S.M.I.|
|8.||Principles of Sedimentology and |
|9.||Stratigraphy and Historical Geology of|
|Kazmi, A.H and Abbasi, I.A|
|10.||Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology||Best, M.G.,|
|11.||Introduction to Optical Mineralogy||Nesse, W.D|
|12.||An Atlas of Minerals in Thin Section||Schulze, D.J.,|
|13.||Minerals and Rocks||Klein, C.,|
|14.||Mineral Characterization and |
|Mohapatra, B.K., Misra, V|
|15.||Principles of Mineralogy||William. H.B.,|
|17.||Plate Tectonics – Geodynamics||Moores, E.M. & Twiss, R.J|
|18.||Structural Geology of Rocks and |
|George H. Davis, Stephen J.|
Reynolds, Charles F. Kluth
|19.||Structural Geology||Twiss, R.J. & Moores, E.M.,|
|20.||Carbonate Sedimentology||Tucker, M.E. & Wright, V.P|
|21.||Applied Sedimentology||Selly, R.C.,|
|22.||Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks||Boggs Jr. S|
|23.||Sedimentary Rocks||Pettijohn, F.J|
|24.||Introduction to Applied Geophysics||Burger R.H., Sheehan, A. &|
|25.||Geophysical Methods in Geology||Sharma, P.V|
|26.||The Solid Earth: An Introduction to |
|27.||Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology||Best, M.G|
|28.||Petrology: Igneous, Sedimentary, &|
|Blatt, H., Tracy, |
R.& Owens, D
|29.||Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology||Best, M.G.,|
|30.||Metamorphic Petrology||Turner, F.J.,|
|31.||Sequence Stratigraphy||Emery, D. & Myers, |
|32.||Elements of Petroleum Geology||Richard C. Selley,|
|33.||Petroleum Geology||North, F.K.,|
|34.||Geology of Pakistan||Bender, F.K. & Raza, |
|35.||Engineering Geology: Principles and |
|David George Price, |
Michael de Freitas
|36.||Engineering Geology||F G Bell|
|37.||Fundamentals of Engineering |
|38.||Environmental Geology||Montgomery, C.W.,|
|39.||Geology of Himalaya, Karakuram, |
Hindukush in Pakistan
|40.||Geology of Pakistan||Bender, F.K. & Raza,|
|41.||Stratigraphy and Historical Geology |
|Kazmi, A.H and Abbasi, I.A|
|42.||Economic Geology: Principles and |
|Walter L. Pohl|
|43.||Directory of Mineral Deposits of |
|44.||An Introduction to Ore Geology||Evans, A.M.,|
|45.||Metallogeny and Mineral Deposits of |
|Kazmi, A.H. & Abbas, S.G.,|
|46.||Introduction to Mineral Exploration||Moon, C.J., Whateley, M.K.G. |
and Evans, A.M.
|47.||Energy Resources||Brown and Skipsy|
|48.||Pakistan Energy Yearbook 2012||Ministry of Petroleum and|
Institute of Pakistan.