I. General Sociology

1. Individual:

Sociability or the sociality of man.

2. Culture:

Meaning and Characteristics (Culture is variable, learned, social, shared, transmissive, dynamic and adaptive), types (Material, Non –material), functions (transfer of knowledge, define the situation, provide behavior pattern, molds personality) and elements of culture (norms, values, beliefs, sanctions, customs).

Culture and Socialization; formal and non-formal socialization, the transmission of culture, cultural relativism.

Sub-cultures. Ethnocentrism and xenocentrism, Cultural lag, High culture, and popular culture. Multiculturalism, assimilation, and acculturation.

3. Society:

Meaning and characteristics. Community; meaning and characteristics.
Individual and society. Relationship between individual and society. Two main theories regarding the relationship between man and society

(i) the social contract theory and (ii) the organismic theory. Social and cultural evolution of society (Hunting and Gathering Society, Herding and Advance Herding Society, Horticultural Society, Agrarian Society, Industrial Society, Postmodern Society).

4. Social Interaction:

Caste and classes, Forms of social classes, Feudal system in Pakistan, Social Mobility-nature of social mobility and its determinants in Pakistani
society, Culture of poverty.

5. Social Control:

Mechanisms of social control-formal and informal means of social
control, Anomie, Alienation, and social Integration-Means of social integration in Pakistani Society.

6. Social and Cultural Change and Social Policy:

Processes of Social and Cultural Change-discovery, Inhibitions to social and cultural change in Pakistan, Social planning and directed social and cultural change, Effect of Industrialization, Urbanization, Modernization and Modern Means of Communication on Social Change.

7. Public Opinion:

Formation of public opinion, the concept of opinion leader, characteristics of opinion leadership.

8. Community:

The rural community, Traditional Characteristics of rural life, The urban community, Rural-Urban convergence, Urbanism, Future of cities in

9. Social Institutions:

The nature and genesis of institutions, The process of institutionalization, Functions of Social Institutions: Family, Religion, Education, Economy, and Politics.

10.Social Problems in Pakistan:

High population growth rate, Rural-urban migration. Issues of technical/vocational training, Deviance and street crime, Unemployment, illiteracy and School drop out, Smuggling, Prostitution, Poverty, Drug Addiction, Child Labour and Abuse, Bonded Labour, Social customs and
Traditions affecting Women in Pakistan, Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence, Issues concerning the Elderly in Pakistan.

II. Sociological Theory:

Three sociological perspectives: Structural Functionalism, Symbolic interactions, and Conflict. Theorists: Ibn-i-Khaldun, Spencer, August Comte, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Karl Marx, Parson.

III. Methods of Sociological Research:

Scientific Method, Steps in research, Types of Questionnaire Research Design, Surveys, Observation, and Case Studies.


S.No. Title Author
1. Sociology : A down to earth approach James M. Henslin
2. Methods of Social Research Baily
3. Poverty Curtains Dr. Mehboob-ul-haq
4. Contemporary Sociological Theories Pitrim Sorokin
5. Master of Sociological Thought Lewis A.Coser
6. Sociology Ogbum &Nimkoff
7. Social Change and History Robert Nisbet
8. Feudal System in Pakistan Nawab Haider Naqvi
9. The Sociology of Rural Life Lynn Smith, T.
10. Sociology-Social Structure and Social Conflict Kerbo, Harold R. (1989).
11. Sociology: An Introduction to the Science of
Koening Samuel
12. Marriage and The Family Lee, Alfred Mclung and Lee,
Elizabeth Briant (1961).
13. The Design of Social Research, Ackoff, Russel, L. (Latest ed.)
14. An Introduction to the History of Sociology Barnes, H.E. (Ed.) (1966)
15. Pakistani Society Akbar Ahmad, S.
16. Contemporary Sociological Theories Pitrim Sorokin
17. Sociology,10th edition John, J. Macionis. 2004.
18. Research Methodology Neuman, Lawrance (Rvs. Ed.)
19. Sociological Theory Ritzer, Georg, (1988).